10 Dollar Bill

United States 10 Dollar Bill

The United States ten-dollar bill $10 is a denomination of United States currency. The first U.S. Secretary of the Treasury (1789–95), Alexander Hamilton, is currently featured on the obverse of the bill, while the U.S. Treasury Building is featured on the reverse. Hamilton is one of two non-presidents featured on currently issued U.S. bills, the other being Benjamin Franklin on the $100 bill. Hamilton is one of only four people featured on U.S. paper currency (1861 to the present) who was not born in the continental United States, as he was from the West Indies. The others are: Albert Gallatin, Switzerland ($500 1862/63 Legal Tender); George Meade, Spain ($1,000 1890/91 Treasury Note); and Robert Morris, England ($1,000 1862/63 Legal Tender; $10 1878/80 Silver Certificate). In addition, Kamehameha I, appears on the 2008 Hawaii state quarter. All $10 bills issued today are Federal Reserve Notes.

The Bureau of Engraving and Printing says the average life of a $10 bill in circulation is 18 months before it is replaced due to wear. Approximately 6% of all US banknotes printed in 2009 were $10 bills. Ten dollar bills are delivered by Federal Reserve Banks in yellow straps.

The source of the face on the $10 bill is John Trumbull’s 1805 portrait of Hamilton that belongs to the portrait collection of New York City Hall. The $10 bill is the only U.S. paper currency in circulation in which the portrait faces to the left (the $100,000 bill featured a portrait of Woodrow Wilson facing to the left, but was used only for intra-government transactions).

US 10 Dollar Treasury Note 1815
$10 Small Treasury Note, authorized by the Act of February 24, 1815.

Large size note
(approximately 7.4218 × 3.125 in ≅ 189 × 79 mm)

United States 1861 10 Dollar Demand Note
United States Paper Money $10 Demand Note 1861

10 Dollar bill 1863 Lincoln
United States currency 10 Dollar Legal Tender Note 1863

1861: The first $10 bill was issued as a Demand Note with a small portrait of Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States, 1861–1865. At top center, an eagle with draped shield. At right, a female allegory representing Art.
1862: The first $10 United States Note was issued with a face design similar to the 1861 Demand Note; the reverse, however, was somewhat revised.
1863: Interest Bearing Notes, featuring a portrait of Salmon P. Chase and vignette of liberty, were issued that could be redeemed one year after the date printed on the bill for $10 plus 5% interest. The notes could also be spent for exactly $10.

United States 10 Dollar Compound Interest Treasury Note 1864
1864 10 Dollar Compound Interest Treasury Note

1864: Compound Interest Treasury Notes, with a face design similar to the 1863 Interest Bearing Note, were issued that grew in face value 6% compounded semi-annually. It is unknown if the note could actually be spent for $10 plus interest.

1869 10 Dollar bill note Rainbow Jackass
Ten Dollar Bill From Series of 1869

1869: A new $10 United States Note was issued with a portrait of Daniel Webster on the left and an allegorical representation of Pocahontas being presented to the Royal Court of England on the right side of the obverse. This note is nicknamed a "jackass note" because the eagle on the front looks like a donkey when the note is turned upside down.
1870: National Gold Bank Notes, featuring a vignette of Benjamin Franklin flying a kite on the left and liberty and an eagle on the right, were issued specifically for payment in gold coin by participating national banks. The back of the bill featured a vignette of US gold coins.
1875: The 1869 United States Note was revised. The blue and green tinting that was present on the obverse was removed and the design on the reverse was completely changed.

10 Dollar Silver Certificates 1880 Robert Morris
U.S. Large Size Silver Certificates

1878: The first $10 silver certificate was issued with a portrait of Robert Morris on the left side of the obverse. The reverse, unlike any other federally issued note, was printed in black ink and featured the word silver in large block letters.
1879: Refunding Certificates were issued that paid 4% interest annually.

10 Dollar Silver Certificate 1886 Tombstone
$10 “Tombstone Note” Series of 1886 to 1908

1886: A new $10 dollar silver certificate with a portrait of Thomas A. Hendricks was issued. 1886 $10 silver certificates are often called tombstone notes because the portrait of Hendricks appears to be inside a frame which is in the shape of a tombstone. The tombstone design may not be an accident by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.  Thomas Hendricks died just a few months before his image was used on 1886 $10 silver certificates.  So the tombstone style may have been an acknowledgement to his recent passing.  Hendricks was the acting vice-president of The United States when he died in office.

10 Dollar bill Treasury or Coin Note 1890

1890: Ten dollar Treasury or "Coin Notes" were issued and given for government purchases of silver bullion from the silver mining industry. The note featured a portrait of General Philip H. Sheridan. He succeeded Sherman as Commander in Chief of the U.S. Army in 1884. The reverse featured an ornate design that took up almost the entire note.
1891: The reverse of the 1890 Treasury Note was redesigned because the treasury felt that it was too "busy" which would make it too easy to counterfeit.

10 Dollar Bison Note 1901
1901 Ten Dollar Bison

1901: The famous United States Note featuring portraits of Meriwether Lewis on the left, William Clark on the right, and an American Bison which is sometimes erroneously noted as being Black Diamond, (the Bison which was depicted on the reverse of the Indian Head Nickel) was issued. This United States Note was the only one to mention the legal provision that authorized its issuance. The reverse featured an allegorical figure representing Columbia between two Roman-styled pillars.
1907: Congress officially ended the interest paid on Refunding Certificates, forever making their face value $21.30.

10 Dollar Gold Certificate 1907
1907 Large-Size $10 Gold Certificate

1907: The first $10 Gold Certificate with a portrait of Michael Hillegas on the front and orange-colored back was issued.

1914 10 Dollar bill
1914 Large-Size $10 Federal Reserve Note

1914: The first $10 Federal Reserve Note was issued with a portrait of Andrew Jackson on the obverse and vignettes of farming and industry on the reverse. The note initially had a red treasury seal and serial numbers; however, they were changed to blue.

US 10 Dollar Bank Note 1915
1915 Large-Size $10 Federal Reserve Bank Note

1915: Federal Reserve Bank Notes (not to be confused with Federal Reserve Notes) were issued by 4 individual Federal Reserve banks. The obverse was similar to the 1914 Federal Reserve notes except for large wording in the middle of the bill and a portrait with no border on the left side of the bill. Each note was an obligation of the issuing bank and could only be redeemed at the corresponding bank.
1918: The 1915 Federal Reserve Bank Note was re-issued under series of 1918 by 4 Federal Reserve banks.

10 Dollar bill 1923 Andrew Jackson
1923 Ten Dollar Legal Tender Note Andrew Jackson

1923: The $10 United States Note was redesigned with a portrait of Andrew Jackson. Some of the design aspects of this note, such as the bottom border and numeral 10 overprinted with the word ten, were transferred over to the series of 1928 $10 bill.

1882 10 Dollar National Currency Bank Note
1882 $10 Value Back National Currency

10 Dollar bill National Currency 1902 McKinley
1902 McKinley 10 Ten Dollar National Currency

Small size note
(6.14 × 2.61 in ≅ 156 × 66 mm)

10 Dollar Gold Certificate 1928

1929: Under the Series of 1928, all U.S. currency was changed to its current size. All variations of the $10 bill would carry the same portrait of Alexander Hamilton, same border design on the obverse, and the same reverse with a vignette of the U.S. Treasury building. The $10 bill was issued as a Federal Reserve Note with a green seal and serial numbers and as a Gold Certificate with a golden seal and serial numbers. The car parked outside of the Treasury Department building is based on a number of different cars manufactured at the time and was the creation of the Bureau designer who developed the artwork that served as a model for the engraving, because government agencies were prohibited from endorsing any specific manufacturer or product, according to a bureau of engraving and printing pamphlet. The tiny building to the right rear of the treasury building is the American Security and Trust Company Building, which for some years advertised itself as "right on the money".
1933: As an emergency response to the Great Depression, additional money was pumped into the American economy through Federal Reserve Bank Notes. This was the only small-sized $10 bill that had a different border design on the obverse. The serial numbers and seal on it were brown.
1933: The first small sized $10 silver certificates were issued with a blue seal and serial numbers. The obverse had a similar design style to the 1928 $1 Silver Certificates; however, phrasing on the $10 bill was different from the $1 bill. This issue, with the series date of 1933, was not widely released into general circulation. Surviving examples of these notes usually sell for $10,000 to $30,000 in the numismatic community depending on the condition of the paper.
1934: The redeemable in gold clause was removed from Federal Reserve Notes due to the U.S. withdrawing from the gold standard.
1934: The $10 Silver Certificate was redesigned with a blue numeral 10 on the left side of the obverse and the treasury seal printed over the gray word ten on the right. Phrasing on the certificate was changed to reflect the Silver Purchase Act of 1934.
1942: Special World War II currency was issued. hawaii was overprinted on the front and back of the $10 Federal Reserve Note, and the seal and serial numbers were changed to brown. This was done so that the currency could be declared worthless in case of Japanese invasion. A $10 Silver Certificate was printed with a yellow instead of blue treasury seal; these notes were given to U.S. troops in North Africa. These notes, too, could be declared worthless if seized by the enemy.
1950: Many minor aspects on the obverse of the $10 Federal Reserve Note were changed. Most noticeably, the treasury seal, gray word ten, and the Federal Reserve Seal were made smaller, the words washington, d.c. were added between them and the serial number; also, the Federal Reserve seal had spikes added around it.
1953: The $10 silver certificate had several design changes analogous to the 1950 Federal Reserve Note design changes; also, the blue numeral 10 on the left side of the bill was changed to gray.
1963: will pay to the bearer on demand was removed from the obverse and IN GOD WE TRUST was added to the reverse of the $10 Federal Reserve Notes. Also, the obligation was shortened to its current wording, this note is legal tender for all debts, public and private.
1969: The $10 bill began using the new treasury seal with wording in English that simply says, "The Department of the Treasury," instead of Latin "THESAUR. AMER. SEPTENT. SIGIL.," "Seal of the Treasury of North America."
1981: During production of Series 1977A, a few star notes from the Richmond FRB were made on experimental Natick paper, in the only experimental note series not involving the $1 bill.
1990: The first modern anti-counterfeiting measures were introduced with microscopic printing around Hamilton's portrait and a plastic security strip on the left side of the bill.
May 24, 2000: To combat evolving counterfeiting, a new $10 bill was issued under series 1999 whose design was similar in style to the $100, $50, $20, and $5 bills that had all undergone previous design changes. The major changes were a revised portrait of Hamilton and a revised vignette of the U.S. Treasury building, now facing front. The plastic security strip reads "USA TEN" and now glows orange under a black light.
The newest $10 bill entered circulation on March 2, 2006. In addition to design changes introduced in 2000, the obverse features red background images of the Statue of Liberty's torch, the phrase we the people from the United States Constitution, a smaller metallic representation of the Statue of Liberty's torch, orange and yellow background color, a borderless portrait of Hamilton, and to the left of Hamilton small yellow 10s whose zeros form the EURion constellation. The reverse features small yellow EURion 10s and have the fine lines removed from around the vignette of the United States Treasury building. These notes were issued in series 2004A with Cabral-Snow signatures.

The $10 bill has several nicknames, including:

Sawbuck, based on the resemblance of the Roman numeral "X" on some of the earlier designs to the carpentry device of the same name. This usage is far less common today than it was in the early 20th century.
Hamilton, Alex, Al or Alexander based on the use of Alexander Hamilton's portrait
Tenner, borrowed from British reference to the 10-pound note, is rarely used in the US but generally understood.
Ten Spot

Confederate States of America dollar

Confederate Currency 1861 10 Dollar bill
Richmond $10 Confederate Note Richmond September 2nd, 1861

Confederate Currency 1861 10 Dollar Bill
T-24 Richmond September 2nd 1861 $10 Confederate Money

Confederate Currency 10 Dollar Indian Family Note 1861
September 2nd 1861 Confederate $10 Bill from Richmond

Confederate Paper Money 10 Dollars Note 1861

Confederate Currency 10 Dollar Bill 1861 Civil War Note

US Military Payment Certificates

10 Dollar bill Military Payment Certificate Series 611
United States $10 Military Payment Certificate Series 611

10 Dollar bill Military Payment Certificate MPC Series 521
Series 521 $10 Military Payment Certificate

10 Dollar bill MPC Military Payment Certificate Series 692 Indian Chief Hollow Horn Bear
Series 692 $10 Military Payment Certificate

10 Dollar bill Military Payment Certificate MPC Series 641
641 $10 Military Payment Certificate

10 Dollar bill Military Payment Certificate